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Personal Communication
(interviews, e-mails, etc.)

Format:

Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.  Personal communication is not added to the References list.

Examples:

  • M. Schroeder (personal communication, January 25, 2009) emphasized the importance of immunization.
  • Immunization is important (M. Schroeder, personal communication, January 25, 2009).

Citations From DU Databases

Advertising Age Datacenter

Format:

Individual or Group Author. (date). Title of document or report.  Retrieved from http://www.adage.com

Examples:

Advertising Age. (2016, June). Marketer trees 2016. Retrieved from http://www.adage.com

Advertising Age, & RBC Capital Markets. (2016, September). Survey of advertising professionals attitudes toward online advertising.  Retrieved from http://www.adage.com

Business Decision

Format:

Name of report: Name of geographic region(s) [Explanatory Note]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from Business Decision database.

Example:

Retail goods and service expenditures: 200 S Grand Ave. Lansing, 48933-1806 ring 1 mile radius, 42.732625, -84.550683 [Expenditure Report]. (2017). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from Business Decision database.


Business Insights Global

Company Report

Format:

Name of Company [Company Report]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from Business Insights Global database.

Example:

General Motors Co. [Company Report]. (2016). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from Business Insights Global database.


Comparison Chart

Format:

Name of chart: List of companies, countries, or industries [Comparison Chart]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from Business Insights Global database.

Example:

Revenue by company: General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co. [Comparison Chart]. (2016). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from Business Insights Global database.


Demographics Now

Format:

Name of report: Name of geographic region(s) [Explanatory Note]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from Demographics Now database.

Example:

Demographic snapshot comparison: 48906 Lansing, 48910 Lansing, 48911 Lansing, 48912 Lansing, 48915 Lansing, 48917 Lansing, 48933 Lansing [Demographic Data]. (2016). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from Demographics Now database.


eStatement Studies

Format:

NAICS code [Industry Data]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from eStatement Studies database.

Example:

325510 – Paint and coating manufacturing [Industry Data]. (2016). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from eStatement Studies database.


KBR

Format:

Name of Report [Explanatory Note]. (Year of Publication). Retrieved from url.

Example:

SIC 10-metal mining [Industry Report]. (2015). Retrieved from http://mergentkbr.com/index.php/reports/industry

832447812 – General Motors Company [Company Report]. (2015). Retrieved from http://mergentkbr.com/index.php/reports/companyFinancials/832447812


Mergent Online and Mergent Intellect

Format:

Name of Company [Company Report]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from Mergent Online or Mergent Intellect database.

Example:

Steelcase Inc. [Company Report]. (2016). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from Mergent Online database.


Mintel

Format:

Analyst’s last name, First initial. (Publication date). Title of report [Industry Report]. Retrieved from Mintel Oxygen database.

Example:

Sisel, E. (2016, September). Coffee – US [Industry Report]. Retrieved from Mintel Oxygen database.


Opposing Viewpoints and Global Issues In Context - Topic Overviews

Format:

Name of topic [Topic Overview]. (Publication Year). Retrieved from database name.

Example:

Body image [Topic Overview]. (2016). Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.

Cyberbullying [Topic Overview]. (2016). Retrieved from Global Issues in Context database.


ProQuest International Data Sets

Format:

Data Provider. (Year). Title [Data file]. Retrieved from source url found under "Detailed Information"

Example:

Eurostat. (2011). Reasons for not participating in lifelong learning by age [Data file]. Retrieved from http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=trng_aes_196&lang=en


Standard & Poor’s

Format:

Name of report [Explanatory Note if necessary]. (date). Retrieved retrieval date, from S&P NetAdvantage database.

Example:

Herman Miller, Inc. (NasdaqGS:MLHR) public company profile. (2017). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from S&P NetAdvantage database.

Government debt interest rates overview. (2017). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from S&P NetAdvantage database.


Data Set

Format:

Rightsholder. (Year). Title [Data file]. Retrieved from url.

Example:

Zimstat. (2011). Zimbabwe: Women who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://devinfo.org/zimdat/libraries/aspx/Home.aspx


Financial Reports

Basic Format:

Author. (Date). Document title. Retrieved from (File Name and number--if available--and any other information needed to trace the report)


When the company is the author:

Example 1

General Electric Co. (2009). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2009. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

In-text citation: (General Electric Co., 2009)

Example 2

Twitter, Inc. (2014). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved SEC EDGAR website http://www.sec.gov/edgar.shtm

In-text citation: (Twitter, 2014)


When the company is not the author:

Disclosure Incorporated. (2009). International Business Machines: Disclosure report. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.

In-text citation: (Disclosure Incorporated, 2009)


From a free website:

Texas Instruments. (2010). 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Retrieved from http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/investor/ar10/index.html

In-text citation: (Texas Instruments, 2010)


Item From Archives

Format:

Author. (Date). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of collection (Call number, Box number, Folder number, etc.). Name and location of archives.

Example:

John Todd's Photo Service, Kalamazoo. [ca. 1935]. First Federal Savings and Loan building, fourth location of Parson's Business College, corner of Michigan and Park. [Original photographic print]. Kalamazoo/Iron Mountain Collection (Box 1, Folder 17). Davenport University Archives, Grand Rapids, MI.

Note: If the specific date is unknown but can be reasonably estimated, put ca. before the year (short for circa) and replace the parentheses with brackets.


Podcast

Format:

Last Name, First Initial. (Role, such as Speaker, Host, Singer, etc.). (Publication Date). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from url

Example:

Palca, J. (Speaker). (2010, December 8). We have liftoff: SpaceX launches test spacecraft [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org


PowerPoint Slides

Note: When Powerpoint slides are available only from an instructor through Blackboard, they are considered personal communication.  Personal communication is cited in-text only in the body of your paper and not included on the References page.  Use the format (First initial. Last name, personal communication, date of interaction) for your in-text citations.  See the In-text citation section for an example.

If the slides are available online use the following format on your references page:

Format:

Last Name, First Initial. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from url.