In-text citations direct the reader to a specific source on your references page. In general, you need to include either the author or title, and the year of publication. Below are the most commonly used in-text citation formats. For more detail, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
If you name the author in your sentence, you need to include the publication year in parenthesis.
If you do not include the author’s name in the sentence, place the author’s name and year in parenthesis at the end of your sentence.
If you are quoting, you also need to include the page or paragraph number where the quote can be found.
When citing a source written by a group author, write out the full name of the group. If the organization has a common abbreviation, it should be added in brackets in the first citation, and then used in later citations.
If there are two authors, type both names every time you cite the source.
If there are three to five authors, type all the names the first time you cite the source and then use the first name and the abbreviation et al. in later citations.
If there are six or more authors, use the first author’s name and et al.
If no author is listed, use a shortened version of the title in quotations.
Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview. Personal communication is not added to the References list.