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APA Help


What is APA Style?

Citing sources 

In-text citations - a short, unique entry included in the body of your paper for a source you used.  It allows readers to identify the full entry on the References page.

References page - an alphabetical list of all the sources you used in your paper (not the ones you looked at, just the ones you mentioned in your paper) with enough information so the readers could find the source themselves.  


See a list and videos/PPTs of APA formatting requirements.
See how to prepare tables and figures in APA style.  
Use a template already formatted in APA style.


Rule: All sources on the References page must be cited in-text and all in-text citations must have a corresponding References entry (with the exception of personal communication and classical works, which are only cited in-text).

What Is An Annotated Bibliography? (see a sample)

An annotated bibliography is a list of references with an added feature - a paragraph below each reference called an annotation.

An annotation may include the following information:

  • Summary
  • Assessment
  • Reflection

Your instructor will explain the details she/he wants included in an annotation for a specific assignment.

The annotations for each source are written in paragraph form. The length of the annotations can vary depending on the purpose and your instructor's directions.

Information adapted from the Annotated Bibliographies created by the OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab.

What Is The Purpose Of An Annotated Bibliography

Depending on the assignment, the annotated bibliography may serve a number of purposes, including but not limited to:

  • A review of the literature on a particular subject
  • Illustrate the quality of research that you have done
  • Provide examples of the types of sources available
  • Describe other items on a topic that may be of interest to the reader
  • Explore the subject for further research

Always ask your instructor what she wants you to include and if there are any formatting guidelines she would like followed.